Credibility 3.

Future credibility:

  • I think in the future out of date websites.
  • Websites where anyone can change anything.
  • Websites which have nothing to do with their name.
  • Websites that have more adverts than information.
  • Websites which have no references on it.
  • Websites which reference a site like Wikipedia.
  • Websites which look like a kid designed them.
  • Websites which are hard to read.
  • Websites that are reaching out to the wrong target audience.
  • Non-official sites, which are asking for your credit card details.
  • Websites which look like they haven’t been edited for a few years or more.
  • A website that its URL and website name do not match.
  • A biased website, which says its products are the best of its kind.
  • If you already know what is being said is not true.
  • Websites which are only advertising their own products, saying they are the best.

Credibility 2

Wikipedia is not accepted as a reference for an assignment, due to the fact anyone can change the information they have on the site. The site has a reference list at the bottom of the page, but you could either put in some random website URL or nothing at all. When completing assignments, you want credibility for your work. Using Wikipedia does not look good. In fact, markers may look at your work, see you used Wikipedia as a reference and then as they read the assignment, they may have a hard time believing everything else in it is true.

You can, however use the references at the bottom of Wikipedia. While the information on it can be changed, the information on the site you find through it, might not. If you were to do a bibliography, then you would have to include Wikipedia, since you have to include every site you go into, but if they see you didn’t in text reference it, then that is fine.

They also want students to use references that are more for university students. Using sites like Library one on the ECU page or Google scholar. They want to see that you went further than just getting your information from Google.

Credibility part 1

Why is it important to assess the credibility of websites? When you want to find some things out, you do want to learn the correct things. If a website can be edited by anyone and the information can be added without references, then you know that you can’t trust it 100%. However, if a website has gov in the URL, or you know it’s a credible site, like a news site, then it can usually be trusted. The reading went on about different things a website can have that makes it seem less credible or more credible. If a website has org in the URL, most people believe it to be true, but that is not necessarily always the case (Fogg, 2003).

As a student, I am required to do research and make sure I only use credible websites to gain my research and knowledge. If I was to use a non-credible website, like a parody news site, or Wikipedia, then my entire assignment may be treated like the site and I might get a fail. If I make sure I only use credible sites, then my assignments will be treated better, and I may pass.


Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers
to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann

Performance load 4

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Computer- The computer used to just be a bunch of numbers, which you had to remember combinations to be able to do certain tasks. Now it is so much easier to use a computer, there is no need for remembering the number combinations, so there is less work load.

Mobile- The mobile phone, when it first came out was like a brick. It was big and fat, and had buttons. Now most mobiles are touch screen, and only has a menu button, on/off button and a volume button.

Car- While driving a car, you have a lot of responsibility. You are having to worry about the actual driving of the car and also other people, either in other cars, or walking on the footpath. This is a high performance load. They are now building new cars, which help you to avoid collisions. If the car senses it is going to hit something, the steering wheel will turn on its own to avoid the collision. This is taking away from the performance load of driving.

Performance load 3

When you know how a person reacts to certain things, it is easier to design a website for their needs. This is why Psychology is important in design. Without it, you are guessing. You don’t need a PHD in Psychology to use it in your design. There are a few simple Psychology principals you can use. (, 2012)

Visceral reactions is reactions our ancestors had which helped their fight or flight instincts. Our brain still thinks like that when we are near food, shelter, danger or reproduction. Pattern matching is the way we see everything, varying from peoples faces to words. We subconsciously hunt for familiar things. When we see repeating patterns, we know we have seen it before. If we don’t recognise the pattern, we automatically think we are seeing the thing for the first time. (, 2012)

References,. (2012). 10 Psychological Principles to Design With | Psychology of Web Design | 3.7 Blog. Retrieved 2 November 2014, from

Performance load 2

Performance load 2: Chunking.

The word ‘chunking’ in the information sense means to break information down into smaller parts so it’s easier to learn (Melamed, 2009). When George A. Miller founded the chunking concept in 1956, he said the brain could only hold 7 (give or take 2) chunks of information at one time. It is now thought to be closer to four or five. Cognitive researchers have also found out it depends on the information and the abilities of the person (Melamed, 2009). A learner’s brain is already full of information, so a big task for a course designer is coming up with information a student can easily remember (Melamed, 2009).

When planning a class, there are four simple steps which can make chunking easier. Step one: Start at the highest level. Start with a module with more information.

Step two: Modules into lessons into topics. Break down the modules into lessons, which can then be broken down into topics. This makes it easier for the students to take it in.

Step three: Chunk at the screen level. Once you have your modules, lessons and topics, you want to organise your screen so there is one topic per page. You don’t want to introduce new topics while talking about a different one.

Step four: Do a working memory check. Throughout the process, make sure you need all the content and test it against a working memory. If you don’t need all the content, get rid of some. Of course, the visual and text content in multimedia courses can lessen demands (Melamed, 2009).


Malamed, C. (2009). Chunking Information for Instructional Design. Retrieved 2 November 2014, from

Performance load.

Part 1: Summarise.

If a person has a higher performance load, they are more likely to be unsuccessful in their task. However, if a person has a smaller performance load, they are more likely to be successful in what they have to do. There are two different types of performance load. Cognitive load is the amount of mental activity it takes to complete a task. The computer became more popular when people didn’t have to use as much cognitive memory. Kinematic load is the physical side. When Samuel Morse invented the Morse code, he made the more popular letters easier to do than the others. E was just a dot, while Q was a longer dash, dash, dot, dash. Design should minimize performance load in the best way possible (Lidwell, Holden, and Butler, 2003).

Task load is the amount of time it takes to complete a task, divided by the amount of time you have to complete the task. Values higher than 1 indicate a higher workload (Gawron, 2008). He, McCarley, and Kramer (2013) did a experiment on drivers, to see how much they would lane change if there was lateral wind. The research found that if they focused on where their car was in the wind, then other aspects of their driving decreased.



Gawron, V. (2008). Human performance, workload, and situational awareness measures handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

He, J., McCarley, J., & Kramer, A. (2013). Lane keeping under cognitive load performance changes and mechanisms. Human Factors: The Journal Of The Human Factors And Ergonomics Society, 0018720813485978.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.
148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Week 2: Consistency

Everyone knows famous logo’s. Ford, Volvo, Apple, McDonald’s. Someone has to design them and they have to make them recognisable and easy. When people see the logo’s, they have a fair idea on what to expect because of past experiences. For example, I know I can expect a good car if I see Ford. I know to be careful if I am holding an Apple product. I know McDonald’s is fattening but tastes good. If the same logo is used on the same companies products, it is consistent and easy for the customers to know what to expect.

When signs and traffic lights are consistent, it makes it easier for people to know what to do. You know if you see a red octagon which has ‘Stop’ written in white on it, you should stop at the white light for three seconds at least. Obviously only start driving forward when it is safe to do so. When approaching a set of traffic lights and the light turns amber, you know to start slowing down, unless you are too close. Once the light is red, you know it is going to turn green soon. These are forms of functional consistency.

An alarm does not always have to have the same noise, but if you hear a loud noise, which sounds like an alarm, then you generally know something is wrong. It could be a fire alarm or a security alarm. These are forms of external consistency. They are consistent in the fact they are loud noises and they generally have someone, whether it is a prerecorded message or a real person, saying it is not a drill and that people are having to evacuate.

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Apple,. (2014). Retrieved from

Challenge alarm services,. (2014). Retrieved from

Ford,. (2014). Retrieved from

McDonalds,. (2014). Retrieved from

Scooter Underground,. (2014). Retrieved from

Week 2: Consistency

Part one. Summarise

People rely on consistency. It enables people to be able to efficiently transfer knowledge, learn new things quickly, and focus attention on similar tasks. There are four different types of consistency. Aesthetic consistency is a logo on a car or product. People look at the logo and know to expect good or bad things about it. Functional consistency is about actions. People know that when a traffic light goes amber, to expect it to go red. Or when a light goes red, they should expect it to turn green again, soon. Internal consistency is similar to other elements in the system, like signs in a park. External consistency is consistency relevant to the environment, like security/fire alarms. You must consider Aesthetic and functional consistency in all aspects of design.

According to Hassan, Sayed and Tabernero (2001), design consistency could be described as the way highway systems are designed to avoid traffic accidents. This could be functional consistency, since it is easier to use.

Consistency is also one of the most important aspects of design for interactive systems. It is quite often listed as encouraging to use. Almost every usability-expert will say consistency is important. Kellogg (1989), points out, “consistency has no meaning on its own; it is inheriently a relational concept. Therefore to merely say that an interface is consistent or that consistency is a goal of user interface design is also meaningless.” (Obendorf, 2009).


Hassan, Y., Sayed, T., & Tabernero, V. (2001). Establishing practical approach for design consistency evaluation. Journal Of Transportation Engineering, 127(4), 295–302.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic-Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of
Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Obendorf, H. (2009). Minimalism. Dordrecht [The Netherlands]: Springer.

Aesthetic Design part 3

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Apple,. (2014). iPhone 6. Retrieved from

iGala,. (2014). iGala touch. Retrieved from

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic-Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 18-19). Massachusetts: Rockport.,. (2014). Aesthetic – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 1 November 2014, from

Sutcliffe, A. (2010). Designing for user engagement: Aesthetic and attractive user interfaces. (p. 4). Pennsylvania: Morgan & Claypool.

Windows,. (2014). Toshiba. Retrieved from